Citations are treated differently: some people use them here and there, starting their own text with someone’s thoughts, others – generally, tend not to use them, thus proving the originality of their own thinking. Nevertheless, the citation is quite a legal phenomenon.
Citation: definition and history
So, what is a citation? It is an excerpt of someone’s words, given without any changes. The word came from Latin ‘citatio’, which has several meanings. Thus, in court Latin word is translated as ‘I prove the truth’. For example, Citation for aggressive driving. This meaning indicates one of the functions of citing: quote helps relying on someone’s authoritative opinion, proves the rightness of his own cause, or arguments in favor of this hypothesis.
What is cited?
The main issues that demand quotation.
- Direct excerpts: phrases, sentences, or passages from a text;
- Paraphrased text: parts of your writing based on your research but presented in your own words;
- Facts and Numbers, collected by an experiment, a poll, etc.;
- Theories, methods, ideas, found during your research;
- Images, graphs, illustrations.
What should not be cited?
Here are the things not quoted generally:
- common knowledge: general info that is well-known;
- a famous argument, theory: the thing is discussed or debated worldwide;
proverbs or sayings.
- Signs: No parking
When is it required to use a quote?
Quoting is used primarily in scientific literature, as precision is important for science, so you should present the words of other scientists without distortion.
It is suitable to use the citation in the works of journalistic style. Often in journalism we can meet not only immortalized quote via letter utterances, but also oral statements of politicians.
How to make quotes while writing?
Everyone knows that excerpts are given in quotation marks, but few writers know that you can give them in a different font. Most often italics is used to highlight passages, but you can decrease the point size.
Also, quotations from poems are not marked if the verse format is observed when quoting. It may look like the following:
My Bonnie is over the ocean
My Bonnie is over the sea
There are three ways to mark quotes in mla or apa citation formats:
The first method: in direct speech.
She stated, “The ‘placebo effect,’ …disappeared when behaviors were studied in this manner” (Miele, 1993, p. 276)
The second method can be an indirect speech.
Smith argued that…(as cited in Andrews, 2007)
The third way: the quote is given in a parenthetical structure.
According to Palladino and Wade (2010), “a flexible mind is a healthy mind” (p. 147).
There are two types of making internal citations.
- Footnotes at the bottom of the page. The bibliographic information about the sources quoted is on the same page as the quote. At the end, a number is given that indicates the serial number of the footnote on this page.
At the bottom of the page, the number is repeated and followed by bibliographic information about the source.
- Quotes at the end of the paper. The serial number of the cited source is indicated in square (sometimes round) parentheses, if required, the number of the cited page too.
At the end of the work a full bibliographic list about the sources with the corresponding numbers.
But if you do not want to do this manually, various online citation makers is an excellent way of speeding your job.
Citation is not plagiarism!
As a rule, when quoting it is necessarily to name the author. Even a citation at the legislative level is not a misdemeanor; it is legal and does not violate the copyright. Therefore, to use a citation in your paper or book, you do not need to ask permission from the author and pay the fee. It is enough to specify the name of the author and bibliographic source of borrowing.