Turabian format guide

What is Turabian Style?

Before you begin your writing assignments, you need to contemplate about the ways you will design your essay. Along with the MLA and the APA, the Turabian style is highly demanded among the students. Another style, Chicago, is one of the top styles as well, but is for another audience.

Turabian Style was created in 1937 by Kate Turabian as a means of simplifying the Chicago Style for students. The style was named after her last name. The Chicago Style is used among high-level academic scholars, while the Turabian Style was created for the students’ dissertations. Similar to Chicago Style, Turabian Style is commonly used for the papers in different disciplines of humanities and for social, natural, and physical sciences.

When do you design your paper in the Turabian style?

The most common subjects that require papers to be written according to the Turabian style are:

  • Art History
  • Arts Management
  • Business
  • Computing Science
  • Criminology
  • History
  • International Studies
  • Music
  • Philosophy
  • Religion
  • Theater


What are the features of the Turabian citation?

Turabian and Chicago Styles have the same formatting rules except for a few minor differences.

Similar to Chicago Style, The Turabian style differs from APA and MLA because its reference of sources includes such means as footnote, endnote, and bibliography pages. Also, writers can put their own comments on those cited sources. Through such techniques of reference, cited sources are protected from plagiarism, and reliability is built within the writer’s work.

After using a source in a Turabian formatted paper, writers should include footnotes in the end of each page and endnotes in the end of each chapter or in the end of the work.

In the bibliography, writers should include an alphabetic list of all sources used in their work. If the author of the source is not listed, writers should alphabetize their list by using the title and ignoring articles (“a”, ”an”, and “the”). Besides various sources used in the paper, writers can also include relevant readings for further exploration of the paper’s topic.

The structure of reference to the source in the bibliography section is following:

Last Name, First Name and middle initials. Edition (if other than 1st). Title of the source. Editors. Volume and issue number. Dates. Page Numbers. Place of publication. Publishers.

For example:

Tisdale, Sallie. “A Weight that Women Carry.” Harper’s Magazine, March 1993. In The Generation of Ideas, ed. Quentin Miller. Boston: Thomson, 2005. 616-625.

As for the footnotes, the first note for each source should include the following information: author’s name, title of the source, and publication information. When the same source is cited again, only the author’s last name and shortened title would be mentioned in the footnotes. Furthermore, if the same source with the same page numbers is cited 2 or 3 times consecutively, а writer would need to use “Ibid” (meaning “in the same place” in Latin.)

The only difference between the Turabian and Chicago styles is that the footnote and endnote begins with the аppropriаte number followed by а period in the Chicago style. In the Turabian style, they begin with а subscript number.

What are the other styles of writing?


The Chicago and the Turabian share а lot of common features, but the Turabian is more popular among the students.


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