American Political Science Association (APSA) format guide
What is APSA citation for?
APSA style is mainly used among the people that want to write and to be published in one of the APSA’s magazines. This style includes not only the citation of the blogs, books and articles written by authors but also the citation of laws and documents written by the government.
What is obligatory to cite?
- When you take data or material word by word from another person’s manuscript that was already published or unpublished.
- If the work is not cited word by word but was made by another person.
- Your own work written earlier.
- Laws and documents written by the government.
What is included in citing?
- The first and the last name of the author.
- Year of publishing.
- State Abbreviations.
Publication IN-TEXT citation guidelines
While writing a paper any time you express the opinion, facts, words or ideas not belonged to your own you need to show the reader the original source of information. They need to be listed in the references.
Pages and paragraphs are obligatory to list during citing or quoting any part of the works that were not written by you.
Examples of the citation of the text:
Without page number:
Abramson (2008) compared political upheaval with…
In the latest study of political upheaval (Abramson 2008)…
Including page number:
According to Lucas (1965), “People were totally depressed during the world War 2” (200)
He noted “People were totally depressed during the World War 2.” (Lucas 1965, 200)
List the full case citation. The name of the followed by citation comes first, at the end list the year the case was decided:
Mapp v. New York, 367 U.S. 643 (1965).
- You must list all the references being cited in the text alphabetically by the last name of the author.
- Personal connections such as letters ,e-mails, interviews are cited in text or notes only.
- Use author’s first names and last names; for books use “et al” to show that there are more than 3-4 authors.
- Do not forget to cite on-line journals, web-sites and other electronic publications.
Most often used citation styles
AMA citation style – the style of American Medical Association. It is used by the authors writing some research papers of a medical orientation.
ASA is the style of American Sociological Association. The ASA Style is made for use by authors preparing some articles for publication in ASA journals. Sometimes it is obligatory to use ASA style while writing research papers. This format is the simplest writing styles of all because it composed of authors’ initials, date or year of publication, heading and sub-heading and place of publication.
Harvard citation style – some people call this style author-date system and a parenthetical system as well. It is widely used by many essay writers around the world.